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Minorities At Risk Project: Home    

Chronology for Abkhazians in Georgia

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Date(s) Item
523 Most Abkhazians adopt the Eastern Orthodox Christian rite.
701 - 1000 Abkhazian tribes and Georgians are united under the kingdom of Abkhazia, a domain which is eventually incorporated into the Georgian kingdom.
1501 - 1600 Abkhazia falls under Ottoman domination. Large numbers of Georgians are deported from their homeland to Persia, and their land is settled by Azerbaijanis and Ulusses. A bloody revolt leads to the slaughter of 60,000 non-Georgians.
1601 - 1800 Under the influence of the Ottomans, many Abkhaz convert to the Sunni Islam faith.
1801 - 1900 Following Moscow's annexation of adjacent territories in 1801, Russia's influence in Abkhazia increases. Abkhaz are deported from their homeland by Tsarist authorities.
1810 At the behest of pro-Russian Abkhaz, Abkhazia becomes a Russian protectorate.
1858 - 1866 Many Abkhaz are forcibly deported from their homeland by Tsarist authorities or choose to resettled in the area of modern-day Turkey and other regions of the Ottoman Empire.
1862 The Abkhaz alphabet, based on Cyrillic, is created.
1864 Abkhazia is formally annexed by Russia.
1866 The Abkhaz revolt when Russian authorities attempt to implement land and tax reform.
1877 The Abkhaz revolt against Russian rule. Following the uprising's suppression, many Abkhaz choose to resettle in Ottoman territory.
1905 Revolutionary agitation occurs in Abkhazia.
1917 Overthrow of the Tsarist regime and later the Provisional Government. The Bolsheviks emerge as the de facto rulers of Russia, controlling Moscow, Petrograd (St. Petersburg) and other major urban centers. A government dominated by Social Democrats takes power in Georgia. A Transcaucasian Federation is established under Soviet auspices incorporating Georgia, Armenia, and Azerbaijan.
1917 - 1921 Most Abkhazians and Ossetes collaborate with Bolshevik Russia in its confrontation with independent Georgia.
1918 The Transcaucasian Federation splinters as Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Georgia (May) all declare independence. The Abkhaz alphabet is replaced by the Latin alphabet.
1918 - 1920 The Bolsheviks impose a naval blockade on independent Georgia and deploy military units to threaten the pro-independence government in Tbilisi.
Feb 1921 Bolshevik forces occupy Georgia, bringing the country back under domination by Moscow. Abkhazia is proclaimed an independent Union Republic, but later in the year is subordinated to Georgia.
1924 The relatively tolerant economic and cultural policies of the Soviet Georgian government come to an end with the attempted insurrection of the "Underground Independence Committee." Amid continuing resistance, Georgian churches are suppressed and forced agricultural collectivization is imposed. Abkhazians, however, for the most part do not participate in anti-Soviet activities.
1926 Ethnic Abkhaz constitute less than one-third of the population in Abkhazia (56,000 out of 186,000 total).
1930 - 1931 Resistance to agricultural collectivization emerges in Abkhazia. Soviet authorities respond with arrests and military suppression.
1930 - 1954 Under the influence of Lavrenty Beria, one of Stalin's top henchmen and a fellow Georgian, policies of "Georgianization" (immigration into Abkhazia of Georgians and other ethnic groups under the auspices of the Second Five Year Plan, purges of the Abkhaz Communist Party, attempts to subordinate Abkhaz culture and identity to those of Georgia, the administrative division of the region into northern and southern districts) reduce the Abkhaz percentage of the population in Abkhazia.
1938 Officially, the Georgian alphabet replaces the Latin alphabet as the basis of the Abkhaz language.
1953 The death of Stalin and the purge and execution of Beria leads to relative liberalization of Soviet society, including tentative redress of minority group grievances. In Abkhazia, something of a cultural renaissance occurs as the Abkhaz language is again written with the Cyrillic script, greater use of Abkhaz in primary and higher-level schooling is permitted, and Abkhaz-language publications multiply.
1954 In another change of language policy, Soviet authorities declare that Abkhaz will again be written with the Cyrillic alphabet.
1956 Khrushchev initiates his anti-Stalinism campaign, one aspect of which is the rehabilitation of the ethnic minorities forcibly resettled by Soviet authorities during the 1930s through the early 1950s.
1957 Ethnic riots occur in Abkhazia.
1959 The percentage of Abkhaz in Abkhazia drops to an all-time low of 15.1 percent. The economic development of Abkhazia's choice beachfronts as resort areas partially accounts for the reduction in the Abkhaz portion of the population.
1967 Ethnic riots occur in Abkhazia.
1970 The Soviet government promotes the settlement of Armenians in Abkhazia. At the same time, evidence indicates that elements of the Communist Party of Georgia pursued a long-term strategy of completely assimilating the Abkhaz to Georgian culture. Strong feelings of ethnic identity and separatism arise among Abkhaz.
1973 The Georgian Communist Party accuses the Abkhaz Communist Party of disproportionately favoring ethnic Abkhaz when assigning jobs and resources.
1977 - 1981 Abkhaz, Armenian, and Azeri minorities verbally protest alleged mistreatment by ethnic Georgians.
1978 The Abkhaz Autonomous Region officially requests that it be elevated to a separate Republic or that it be placed under the jurisdiction of the Russian Federation. Moscow rejects the Abkhaz call for a major political adjustment, but in a process of "Abkhazization" grants the Abkhaz increased economic aid and greater cultural freedom. Moscow's concessions to the Abkhaz contribute to the feeling among Abkhazia's majority Georgian population that they are discriminated against.
1979 Ethnic riots occur in Abkhazia.
Jan 1, 1985 Mikhail Gorbachev takes power in Moscow. Gorbachev's broad reform initiatives known as perestroika (economic restructuring) and glasnost (greater cultural openness) lead most ethnic groups, including the Abkhaz, to demand more cultural and political autonomy. As Georgians increasingly organize to assert their nationalism under Zviad Gamsakhurida, the Abkhaz in turn mobilize to protect their identity and status.
1988 - 1989 Abkhazia, Adzharia, and Ossetia lobby Moscow for removal from Georgian jurisdiction. Abkhazia seeks restoration of its brief status as a Union Republic, while South Ossetia wants to merge with North Ossetia under the Russian Federation.
1989 The first armed clashes occur between Abkhaz and Georgians.
Mar 18, 1989 Thousands of Abkhaz gather in the town of Lykhny to demand independence from Georgia. This episode sparks a cycle of demonstrations and counter-demonstrations by Abkhaz and Georgians in both Abkhazia and Georgia proper.
Apr 9, 1989 20 Georgians (mostly women) are killed when Soviet troops open fire on a pro-independence demonstration in Tbilisi. Unrest in the Georgian capital has been provoked, at least in part, by Abkhaz demands for greater autonomy.
May 1 - Nov 30, 1989 Ethnically-motivated bombings and the disruption of road and rail links occur in Abkhazia.
Jul 13 - 16, 1989 Clashes between Georgians and Abkhaz in the Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi result in 14 deaths and 127 injuries.
Aug 1989 Georgia publishes measures designed to increase the use of the Georgian language in all spheres of life. Many of Georgia's national minorities consider this an act of repression.
Aug 1989 Georgia publishes measures designed to increase the use of the Georgian language in all spheres of life. Many of Georgia's national minorities consider this an act of repression.
Nov 20, 1989 The Georgian Supreme Soviet declares that its incorporation into the Soviet Union in 1921 was the result of military force and not was therefore involuntary and illegitimate. The Supreme Soviet also claims that it enjoys the right to secede from the USSR and to nullify laws and decrees emanating from the central government in Moscow.
Mar 13, 1990 The Congress of Peoples Deputies, the highest body of Soviet state power, votes to create a strong executive presidency. In addition, the Congress amends the Soviet constitution, abolishing the Communist Party's guaranteed monopoly of power in the USSR.
Mar 20, 1990 The Supreme Soviet of Georgia votes to amend the republic's constitution in order to void the Communist Party's guaranteed leading role in Georgian affairs. Elections for the Republic's Supreme Soviet scheduled for March 25 are delayed under pressure from opposition groups, who want more time to organize.
Apr 3, 1990 The USSR Supreme Soviet enacts a new law on secession procedures for Union Republics. One provision of the statute states that ethnic minorities inhabiting a particular region may elect to remain part of the USSR, even if the rest of their Republic's population votes to secede.
Jul 26, 1990 Opposition forces in Georgia begin blockading key rail links to agitate for new election procedures.
Aug 1, 1990 Opposition forces in Georgia end their railway blockade following the publication of several drafts of a new electoral law.
Aug 20, 1990 The Georgian Supreme Soviet schedules Republic-wide elections for October 28. The electoral law bans participation by groups who confine their activities to one region of Georgia. This measure prevents independence movements organized in South Ossetia and Abkhazia from participating in the election.
Aug 25, 1990 The Supreme Soviet of the Abkhaz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, with only barely over half its delegates in attendance, declares independence from the Georgian Republic, claiming that the territory had been illegally annexed by the latter. In addition, the Abkhaz legislature calls for the granting of full Union Republic status to the region, which it had briefly enjoyed in 1921.
Aug 26, 1990 The Presidium (steering group) of the Georgian Supreme Soviet declares the independence measure of the Abkhaz legislature to be invalid. In Sukhumi, Abkhazia's capital, ethnic Georgians begin protest measures, cutting the city's rail links.
Aug 31, 1990 The Abkhaz Supreme Soviet voids its declaration of independence from Georgia.
Oct 24, 1990 Responding to spreading sovereignty declarations, the USSR Supreme Soviet reaffirms the supremacy of central legislation over the laws passed by Republic and local legislatures.
Oct 28, 1990 Nationalist forces in Georgia win 54 percent of the vote in the first round of elections for the Republic's Supreme Soviet. Sporadic boycotting of the election is reported in both South Ossetia and Abkhazia. Separatist organizations in both Abkhazia and South Ossetia are banned from participating in the election because their activities are geographically restricted, which is illegal under Georgia's electoral laws.
Nov 11, 1990 In the second round of Republic-wide elections, nationalist parties win 62 percent of the vote, giving them a total of 155 seats in the Supreme Soviet, but still short of the two-thirds majority which would give them effective control.
Nov 14, 1990 The newly constituted Georgian Supreme Soviet overwhelmingly elects former academic and longtime dissident Zviad Gamsakhurdia as President. Gamsakhurida declares that full Georgian independence will be achieved within five years. In moves reflecting the growing independence sentiments of Georgians, the legislature announces that henceforth the region will be designated as the "Republic of Georgia" without reference to "Soviet Socialist". In addition, the flag which flew during the Georgia's brief period of independence after World War I is again adopted.
Nov 15, 1990 Georgia declares that the drafting of its citizens into the Soviet armed forces is henceforce illegal.
Dec 8, 1990 The Georgian Communist Party, which had adopted a pro-independence platform during the election campaign, declares that it is separating from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU). Party delegates from South Ossetia and Abkhazia do not attend the meeting and denounce the secession move.
Feb 18, 1991 Soviet forces descend on an installation maintained outside of Tbilisi by the Mkhedrioni, a 7,000 strong paramilitary nationalist faction which opposes the Georgian leadership as too accommodating of Moscow. Following the raid, the head of the Mkhedrioni denounces Gamsakhurdia as a fascist who is plotting with Russia against Georgia's interests.
Feb 19, 1991 The head of the Mkhedrioni is arrested by Georgian authorities.
Feb 22, 1991 Georgian authorities announce that a Republic-wide crackdown has neutralized the Mkhedrioni.
Feb 23, 1991 In Tbilisi, the first 1,000 members of Georgia's newly constituted National Guard are inducted into the service.
Feb 27, 1991 Gamsakhurdia tells the Georgian Supreme Soviet that Gorbachev is planning to detach South Ossetia and Abkhazia from the Republic, and is using such measures as a tool for pressuring Georgia into singing the newly proposed Union Treaty.
Feb 28, 1991 Georgia's parliament votes not to participate in the all-Union referendum on preserving the USSR scheduled for the following month.
Mar 17, 1991 Boycotting a national vote on the question of preserving the USSR, instead the Georgian electorate overwhelmingly votes "yes" in a referendum held on the question of independence. However, most ethnic Abkhaz boycott the Georgian vote and instead participate in the all-Union vote, overwhelmingly endorsing preservation of the Soviet Union. Similarly, Ossetes overwhelmingly vote in favor of upholding the Soviet Union.
Mar 31, 1991 In a Republic-wide referendum, Georgians vote to secede from the Soviet Union.
Apr 9, 1991 The Georgian Supreme Soviet votes to declare independence from the Soviet Union. Gamsakhurdia states that immediate secession from the union is not taking place, however.
Apr 10, 1991 Gamsakhurdia calls upon Moscow and the international community to recognize Georgia's independence.
Apr 12, 1991 The Georgian Supreme Soviet calls for negotiations with Moscow on the Republic's independence.
Apr 14, 1991 Gamsakhurdia is appointed by the Georgian Supreme Soviet to the new post of President with extensive powers.
Apr 15, 1991 Gamsakhurdia issues a call for an extensive program of civil disobedience to undermine Soviet authority in Georgia.
May 26, 1991 In Georgia's first direct presidential elections, Gamsakhurdia wins 87 percent of the vote. The election campaign has been characterized by harsh denunciations among pro- and anti-Gamsakhurdia factions. Due to continued unrest, polling stations remain closed in sections of South Ossetia and Abkhazia.
Aug 19, 1991 The government of Georgia neither supports nor denounces the takeover in Moscow of the so-called "State Committee on the State of Emergency", a grouping of conservative, anti-Gorbachev elements drawn mainly from the military, Communist Party, and security services. However, authorities in South Ossetia and Abkhazia announce their support for the coup leaders.
Aug 21, 1991 Gamsakhurdia announces the cessation of food and raw materials exports to the Soviet Union.
Aug 27, 1991 Georgia bans the Communist Party.
Aug 28, 1991 Georgia announces the creation of its own Ministry of Defense.
Sep 2, 1991 Loyalist troops of the Georgian National Guard, whose 15,000 members have split into pro- and anti-Gamsakhurida factions, open fire on anti-government demonstrators in Tbilisi.
Sep 6, 1991 A severing of relations between Georgia and the Soviet Union is announced by Tbilisi.
Sep 8, 1991 A visiting delegation of the US Congress states that Georgia must improve its human rights record if it hopes to receive international recognition.
Sep 26, 1991 Amidst rising, sometimes violent, opposition to his regime, Gamsakhurdia declares a state of emergency in Georgia.
Oct 1 - 15, 1991 Fighting continues between pro- and anti-Gamsakhurdia forces in and around Tbilisi.
Dec 22, 1991 Civil war erupts in Tbilisi.
Dec 25, 1991 Gorbachev announces his resignation from office.
Dec 26, 1991 In Moscow, the Soviet of Nationalities and the Soviet of the Union declare themselves abolished, effectively dissolving the USSR.
Jan 6, 1992 Gamsakhurdia and his entourage flee Tbilisi for exile in Armenia after his forces are defeated in street battles. Opposition forces form a new government. Fighting by Gamsakhurida loyalists continues in western Georgia.
Jan 16, 1992 Gamsakhurdia returns to Georgia and calls for civil war and the formation of an independent republic of "Megrel-Abkhazia" in western Georgia.
Jan 29, 1992 Government forces capture remaining Gamsakhurida strongholds in Georgia.
Feb 1992 Pro-Gamsakhurdia elements continue demonstrations in major Georgian cities.
Feb 6, 1992 Abkhaz authorities agree to allow Georgian troops to establish control of Sukhumi, the regional capital where pro-Gamsakhurdia demonstrations by ethnic Georgians have been frequent.
Feb 18, 1992 From his exile in southern Russia, Gamsakhurdia vows to continue to fight against his opponents.
Feb 21, 1992 Georgia reinstates its 1921 constitution.
Mar 1992 Agitation by pro-Gamsakhurida elements continues, especially in western Georgia. Gamsakhurdia forces hold strong positions in Abkhazia.
Mar 2, 1992 The Abkhaz parliament bans all rallies and imposes a curfew in Sukhumi.
Mar 10, 1992 Eduard Shevardnadze, former Foreign Minister of the USSR, is named head of a new Georgian State Council. The Council consists of 50 members, including representatives of ethnic minorities who have been in conflict with Tbilisi.
Mar 23, 1992 The European Community recognizes Georgia.
Mar 24, 1992 The United States recognizes Georgia.
Mar 30, 1992 Gamsakhurdia issues a harsh denunciation of Shevardnadze.
Apr 1992 Georgia agrees to send troops to Abkhazia only with the permission of Abkhaz authorities.
Apr 19, 1992 Georgia announces it will establish a national army numbering 20,000 to replace all National Guard and paramilitary units.
Apr 21, 1992 Georgia announces the formation of a special state committee on ethnic affairs.
May 1, 1992 The Georgian State Council sets elections for October 11 and extends the state of emergency in Tbilisi for an additional month.
May 26, 1992 US Secretary of State James Baker visits Georgia and tells the country's leaders that respect for minority rights is the key to further international aid.
Jun 1 - 15, 1992 Georgians in Abkhazia announce a campaign of non-compliance with acts of the Abkhaz parliament.
Jun 20, 1992 In order to quell continued agitation by Gamsakhurdia elements in western Georgia, the State Council enlists the assistance of Mkhedrioni paramilitary force.
Jun 21, 1992 Russian Vice-President Alexander Rutskoi accuses Georgia of practicing "genocide" against its Russian minority.
Jun 24, 1992 In Abkhazia, the ethnic Georgian Internal Affairs Minister is fired in violation of procedures established under Georgian law.
Jul 9, 1992 A senior Georgian official and his staff are kidnapped by Gamsakhurdia forces in Abkhazia.
Jul 23, 1992 The Abkhaz Supreme Soviet votes to restore the 1921 constitution which declares the region to be a union republic separate from Georgia. Georgian delegates to the Soviet oppose the measures.
Jul 25, 1992 Georgia declares the restoration of the Abkhaz constitution to be an illegal act. Meanwhile, the head of the Abkhaz Supreme Soviet denies that the region is trying to secede from Georgia.
Aug 1992 Armed conflict spreads between Abkhaz and Georgians in Abkhazia. By the end of the month, 100 persons are dead. The "Confederation of Mountain Peoples" sends volunteers to support the Abkhaz in their fight against Georgia. Yeltsin rhetorically supports Shevardnazde's efforts to preserve the territorial integrity of Georgia.
Aug 4, 1992 Georgia declares an end to the state of emergency in the country. As part of measures billed as "national reconciliation" day, an amnesty is announced for imprisoned supporters of Gamsakhurdia.
Aug 11, 1992 The Georgian Internal Affairs Minister is taken hostage in Abkhazia by supporters of Gamsakhurdia.
Aug 14, 1992 Georgian National Guard units are deployed in Abkhazia to locate kidnapped Georgian officials, who are released by their pro-Gamsakhurdia captors. Abkhaz authorities denounce the Georgian move as an illegal occupation.
Aug 18, 1992 Apparently acting outside of Shevardnadze's orders, Georgian National Guard units, operating under the authority of Minister of Defense Tengiz Kitovani, attack the Abkhaz parliament. Fighting breaks out in the Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi, causing 50 deaths. Combat rapidly spreads to other parts of Abkhazia.
Aug 19, 1992 The Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi is occupied by Georgian forces.
Aug 29, 1992 Russia, fearing that Caucasian groups within its borders might intervene in Georgia, sponsors ceasefire negotiations between Abkhaz and Georgian delegates.
Aug 31, 1992 A ceasefire is declared in Abkhazia. The Minister of Justice of Abkhazia, an ethnic Georgian, calls for the disbanding of parliament because it was elected under discriminatory elections laws in July 1991.
Sep 3, 1992 Under Russian good offices, negotiations begin between Abkhaz and Georgian leaders on the future of Abkhazia.
Sep 5, 1992 A new ceasefire is declared for Abkhazia. It is agreed between Abkhazia, Georgia, and Russia that Georgian troops will remain deployed in Abkhazia. Russia pledges to prevent support for Abkhaz separatists by Russia's Caucasian peoples, dispatching MVD troops to seal the border and provide security in frontier regions.
Sep 25, 1992 The Russian Supreme Soviet denounces the use of violence by Georgia in Abkhazia and suspends the delivery of weapons and equipment to Tbilisi. Georgia condemns Russian interference in its internal affairs.
Oct 2, 1992 Abkhaz independence rebels break the ceasefire and resume operations against Georgian forces. Shevardnadze denounces reactionary forces in Russia for encouraging Abkhaz separatists.
Oct 3, 1992 Yeltsin rejects Georgian charges of Russian interference in Georgia's internal conflicts, but warns Russia will take action if Russian lives and property are threatened.
Oct 6, 1992 Georgia announces that it is drafting another 40,000 men into its armed forces.
Oct 11, 1992 Shevardnadze is popularly elected chairman of parliament (President) with 95 percent of the vote. Due to interethnic fighting, nine districts in Abkhazia and South Ossetia do not participate in the election.
Oct 13, 1992 Trilateral talks between the leaders of Georgia, Russia, and Abkhazia are postponed due to lack of agreement.
Nov 2, 1992 Georgian units seize a Russian arms depot in southern Georgia.
Nov 3, 1992 The Russian Defense Minister warns that Russia will use force to secure its installations in Georgia.
Nov 6, 1992 Georgian officials in Abkhazia accuse Russia of deploying its airforce to bomb Georgian forces in Abkhazia.
Nov 19, 1992 Georgian and Abkhaz forces reach a temporary ceasefire to allow Russian troops to depart from Sukhumi. The South Ossetian parliament votes to separate from Georgia and join Russia.
Dec 14, 1992 A Russian helicopter is shot down in Abkhazia, killing all 63 (mostly civilian) persons on board. Georgia and Russia trade accusations on the nature of the helicopter's mission and whether it was carrying arms.
Dec 18, 1992 The Georgian parliament suspends negotiations with Russia in which a number of outstanding issues are being discussed.
Dec 19, 1992 Shevardnadze denounces Russian interference in Georgian affairs.
Dec 31, 1992 With fighting continuing in Abkhazia, Russian and Georgian Defense Ministers meet in Moscow, where the former denies that Russian troops are interfering in the conflict.
Jan 5, 1993 With the Abkhaz capital of Sukhumi under attack by separatist forces, Shevardnadze writes to UN Secretary General Boutros-Ghali requesting the deployment of UN peacekeeping forces in the region.
Jan 20, 1993 A UN mission arrives in Georgia to assess emergency aid requirements.
Jan 25, 1993 Russian and Georgian representatives renew bilateral negotiations on the role of Russian troops in Georgia.
Feb 18, 1993 Georgian and Russian representatives meet and agree that the various conflicts in the Caucasus cannot be separated from one another and must be settled in a comprehensive manner. The Russian side suggests that Russia will help end the conflict in Abkhazia if Georgia assists in bringing a close to ethnic strife in South Ossetia.
Feb 20, 1993 Georgia accuses the Russian airforce of bombing Sukhumi.
Feb 24, 1993 The Georgian parliament blames Russia for inciting its troops in Abkhazia to attack Georgian forces.
Feb 27, 1993 Shevardnadze denounces Russian interference in Georgia's internal affairs.
Mar 9, 1993 The latest round of Russian-Georgian talks begin.
Mar 14, 1993 Abkhaz separatist forces begin a major offensive against Sukhumi. Georgia accuses the Russian airforce of supporting this operation.
Mar 17, 1993 Georgia accuses Russia of pursuing an undeclared war against it.
Mar 20, 1993 Russia and Georgia conclude agreements on trade and banking issues.
Apr 10, 1993 Shevardnadze blames the conflict in Abkhazia on anti-Yeltsin elements in Russia.
Apr 12, 1993 Shevardnadze welcomes a Ukrainian offer to mediate the conflict in Abkhazia.
Apr 20, 1993 Shevardnadze calls for greater international involvement in the conflict in Abkhazia.
Apr 29, 1993 While the city is under bombardment, Shevardnadze visits Sukhumi.
May 14, 1993 Yeltsin and Shevardnadze meet to negotiate a settlement in Abkhazia and sign a ceasefire agreement. Georgia and Russia agree that all Russian military forces will withdraw from Georgia by the end of 1995.
May 20, 1993 A ceasefire in Abkhazia negotiated by Yeltsin and Shevardnadze commences.
May 31, 1993 Shevardnadze attributes continued fighting in Abkhazia to the support provided to Abkhaz separatists by anti-Yeltsin Russian conservatives.
Jun 16, 1993 The Russian Foreign Minister opens talks with Georgian and Abkhaz delegations in Moscow.
Jun 28, 1993 Abkhaz separatist leader Vladislav Ardzinba accuses Georgia of "genocide".
Jul 5, 1993 The "Confederation of Mountain Peoples" announces "total mobilization" against the Georgian presence in Abkhazia. Earlier (August 1992) the Confederation endorsed terrorist actions within Georgia.
Jul 7, 1993 The Georgian Prime Minister denounces Russia's "undeclared war" against Georgia.
Jul 16, 1993 Georgian forces launch a counteroffensive to relieve Sukhumi from the threat of rebel Abkhaz forces.
Jul 27, 1993 A tentative peace treaty is signed between Georgia and Abkhazia under Russian good offices. Russia agrees to deploy peacekeepers to monitor the situation in Abkhazia. All Georgian forces are to be withdrawn from the region.
Jul 30, 1993 In an attempt to prevent the withdrawal of Georgian forces from Abkhazia, Gamsakhurdia loyalists occupy towns in the region.
Aug 25, 1993 The UN Security Council dispatches military observers to Georgia to monitor conditions in Abkhazia.
Aug 26, 1993 Georgian military forces begin withdrawing from Abkhazia.
Aug 28, 1993 Pro-Gamsakhurida forces occupy several town in western Georgia.
Sep 15, 1993 Shevardnadze suspends the Georgian Supreme Soviet.
Sep 16, 1993 Abkhaz rebels launch a surprise assault on Sukhumi in conjunction with North Caucasian and ethnic Russian forces.
Sep 18, 1993 Pro-Gamsakhurdia forces deploy in Abkhazia.
Sep 19, 1993 Russia imposes sanctions on Abkhazia. In Georgia, the government institutes state of emergency measures to reimpose order.
Sep 20, 1993 Shevardnadze announces a state of emergency to be in effect until November 20. Russia rejects military intervention in Abkhazia.
Sep 24, 1993 Gamsakhurdia returns to western Georgia from his exile in Russia.
Sep 27, 1993 Sukhumi falls to Abkhaz forces. Shevardnadze flies out of the city just ahead of rebel troops. He denounces Russia's betrayal of the peace agreement. In a letter to the UN, Shevardnadze refers to Russia as "the evil empire". The Georgian Prime Minister accuses Abkhaz of perpetrating a "holocaust" against Georgians.
Sep 28, 1993 Shevardnadze claims that Russian military authorities masterminded the Abkhaz rebel attack on Sukhumi.
Sep 30, 1993 The last major towns of Abkhazia are taken by rebel troops, giving them effective control of most of the region.
Oct 1, 1993 The Black Sea port of Poti falls to pro-Gamsakhurdia forces numbering 10,000.
Oct 6, 1993 Responding to a worsening security situation, the Georgian government imposed curfews in Tbilisi and Sukhumi. Georgia's Deputy Prime Minister claims that 200,000 people have been displaced by the combat in Abkhazia.
Oct 8, 1993 Shevardnadze announces that Georgia will join the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS), the post-Soviet confederation consisting of all former Soviet Republics except the three Baltic nations. Russia has previously stated that Georgia's participation in the CIS is key to its support for Georgia's war against ethnic separatists in Abkhazia. After Georgia pledges to join the CIS, Russia reportedly supplies Tbilisi with 10 heavy tanks and other military hardware and supplies.
Oct 13, 1993 Shevardnadze signs a decree creating a new Security Ministry.
Oct 17, 1993 Shevardnadze speaks on Georgian radio about his government's catastrophic struggle with its opponents who are mounting a successful offensive, saying "Our army has virtually disintegrated...I pin definite hopes on Russia."
Oct 20, 1993 Responding to a request by Georgia, Russia deploys troops to protect a vital railway in western Georgia which has been under threat from Gamsakhurdia forces.
Oct 20 - 31, 1993 Georgian government forces launch a successful counter-attack against pro-Gamsakhurdia rebels, driving them back to their strongholds in western Georgia.
Oct 22, 1993 Acting without consulting the suspended Supreme Soviet, Shevardnadze signs a decree formalizing Georgia's adherence to the CIS.
Oct 25, 1993 The Russian Defense Ministry denies its troops are involved in combat operations in Georgia in support of the Georgian government.
Nov 2, 1993 Shevardnadze orders that rebels will henceforth be subject to summary "liquidation" by government forces.
Nov 3, 1993 Georgia Radio claims that Gamsakhurdia rebels are confined to the breakaway region of Abkhazia.
Nov 6, 1993 Following deployments of Russian forces in Georgia, pro-Shevardnadze forces retake the last stronghold of Gamsakhurdia forces in western Georgia.
Nov 7 - 8, 1993 500 Russian Marines from the Black Sea Fleet deploy in western Georgia to protect roads and railways.
Nov 18, 1993 The leader of Abkhazia announces that a referendum will be held on unification with Russia.
Nov 20, 1993 Shevardnadze extends Georgia's state of emergency until January 20.
Nov 21, 1993 The Citizens' Union of Georgia, a new pro-Shevardnadze political party, holds its founding congress. Pledging its support for democracy, the Citizens' Union also demands the restoration of Georgia's territorial integrity.
Nov 22, 1993 Shevardnadze denounces Gamsakhurdia as "the Antichrist."
Nov 30, 1993 Following a new offensive by Abkhaz separatists, the Georgian Foreign Ministry accuses rebels of conducting "genocide" and "ethnic cleansing."
Dec 1, 1993 Under UN auspices, Georgian and Abkhaz representatives sign a "memorandum of understanding" in Geneva on ending the conflict in Abkhazia. Among other measures, the agreement stipulates an immediate ceasefire, the stationing of international observers in Abkhazia, and the return of all 200,000 refugees who fled the region during the course of the fighting.
Dec 16, 1993 Georgian television reports that fighting is continuing in Abkhazia despite the Geneva accord signed earlier in the month.
Jan 1 - 15, 1994 Russian and Georgian media report the death of Zviad Gamsakhurdia. Gamsakhurdia's widow claims that he committed suicide while other reports indicate that the ousted president may have died of complications relating to diabetes.
Jan 13, 1994 Georgian and Abkhazian negotiators in Geneva agree to the deployment of UN peacekeepers in their zone of conflict.
Jan 22, 1994 The Georgian Procurator's office accuses Abkhaz authorities of perpetrating a planned campaign of genocide against ethnic Georgians within their territory.
Feb 20, 1994 The head of the Georgian National Guard veterans union states that according to preliminary data, the 1992-1993 war in Abkhazia cost the Georgian side 11,000 dead and 20,000 wounded.
Mar 2, 1994 Russia and Georgia sign a military cooperation agreement. The leadership of SOUTH OSSETIA and Abkhazia meets in a joint press conference to decry the treaty as provocative of further ethnic conflict.
Mar 10, 1994 Anzor Baluashvili, head of the fact-finding commission investigating alleged genocide perpetrated against ethnic Georgians in Abkhazia tells the Georgian Parliament that the necessary evidence has been gathered to convene an international war crimes tribunal. In further Parliamentary discussions, Georgian officials accuse the Abkhaz of practicing racism and apartheid against ethnic Georgians.
Mar 22, 1994 Abkhaz officials accuse Georgia of circulating false documents pertaining to an alleged underground dissident political movement in Abkhazia.
Mar 24, 1994 A high ranking Georgian Defense Ministry official accuses Abkhazia of committing genocide against its ethnic Georgian residents.
Mar 29, 1994 Abkhazia declares a successful conclusion to military operations against ethnic Georgians in the Svaneti region. Tbilisi, however, claims that fighting in the region is continuing. [Note: Ethnic Georgians in the Svaneti region are the only community of ethnic Georgians who did not flee Abkhazia before the rebel onslaught in 1993].
Apr 11, 1994 There are reports of positional fighting between Abkhaz and Georgian forces in the Gali gorge region of Abkhazia.
Apr 16, 1994 57.6 percent of Georgians polled indicate their support for continued dialogue with Abkhazia to settle outstanding issues with the separatist region.
May 3, 1994 The Georgian constitutional commission issues a draft program for the country's political and territorial structure. The draft calls for the granting of special political status to Abkhazia and ADZHARIA. SOUTH OSSETIA is not offered a similar status, although Georgian officials indicate that the issue is subject to negotiation.
Jun 1 - 2, 1994 A joint Abkhaz-Georgian coordinating commission meets in Sochi to determine spheres of competence in transport, energy, and communications for the period preceding a comprehensive settlement of the Abkhaz-Georgia dispute.
Jun 7, 1994 The Abkhaz constitutional commission issues a new draft constitution. It stipulates that Abkhazia is a sovereign state that establishes relations with Georgia on the basis of mutual equality. The constitution is to be voted on in a referendum following the return to Abkhazia of portion of the ethnic Georgians who fled the region.
Jun 24, 1994 Russia deploys its first contingent of peacekeepers in the Abkhaz-Georgian zone of conflict. Two battalions of Russian troops occupy positions on the Inguri river, the formal border between Georgia proper and Abkhazia.
Aug 20, 1994 Shevardnadze's press office accuses Abkhazia of continuing genocide against ethnic Georgians in the Gali region. Georgia claims that it has reliable reports of plunder, forced deportation, and torture.
Aug 24, 1994 The Georgian Foreign Ministry protests to Moscow over a "Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation" signed between Abkhazia and Russian republic of Tatarstan on August 17th. Shamil Basaev, alleged Islamic fundamentalist and commander of the armed contingents of the "Confederation of Mountain Peoples," states that his forces will no longer assist Abkhazia against Georgia. [Later in 1994, Basaev is a top military commander of the Chechen insurgency against Russia.]
Sep 1994 Rallies are held in Abkhazia to protest against the return of ethnic Georgian refugees from Georgia proper. Allegedly, these rallies are orchestrated by the leadership of the breakaway region and prominently feature Russians in order to create the impression that that ethnic group disapproves of the return of Georgians to Abkhazia.
Sep 7, 1994 Reports circulate of ethnic clashes between Abkhaz and Armenians in Abkhazia.
Sep 13, 1994 The Georgian commission studying alleged genocide in Abkhazia claims that the Ardzinba regime has targeted not only ethnic Georgians, but also dissident Abkhaz who oppose the ruling authorities.
Sep 14, 1994 Leaders of Abkhazia appear on television to demand that all ethnic Georgians depart from the region by September 27th (the anniversary of the capture of Sukhumi, capital of Abkhazia, by separatist forces).
Nov 2, 1994 Abkhazia'S leader Ardzinba states that his region has been a part of Russia since 1810 and has never seceded from it.
Nov 30, 1994 Abkhazia promulgates a new constitution and declares itself a sovereign republic. Ardzinba, a holdover from the Soviet era, is elected president.
Dec 15, 1994 The US State Department condemns Abkhazia'S declaration of sovereignty.
Jan 6, 1995 Bread shortages are reported in Abkhazia. Previously, Russia has tightened border controls adjacent to Abkhazia, thus imposing a de facto economic embargo.
Jan 30, 1995 Georgian media report that ethnic Chechens are appointed to high-ranking positions in Abkhazia.
Feb 8, 1995 The Georgian Procurator accuses Ardzinba, leader of Abkhazia, and his close associates of personal complicity in genocide against ethnic Georgians.
Mar 6, 1995 The leadership of Abkhazia states that it is still pursuing complete independence from Georgia, but will negotiate a union with Georgia on the basis of a confederation between two equal states.
Mar 8, 1995 The Tbilisi-based Supreme Council of Abkhazia (the pro-Georgian administration in "exile") protests measures by the Ardzinba regime to redraw the borders of the Gali district, a majority Georgian region of Abkhazia before the 1992-1993 war.
Mar 21, 1995 The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees accuses Abkhaz militias of torturing and murdering dozens of returning ethnic Georgian refugees in the Gali region. UN officials in Abkhazia say that the Abkhaz are pursuing a systematic campaign of ethnic cleansing to expel all Georgians.
Apr 7, 1995 Abkhazian civic organizations, including the Russian community of Gudauta and the Armenian society "Krunk", sponsor a petition campaign addressed to Presidents Yeltsin and Shevardnadze calling for the recognition of Abkhaz independence.
Apr 17, 1995 On 185th anniversary (1810) of Abkhazia's incorporation into Russia, Abkhaz civic organizations demonstrate in favor of maintaining political ties with the Russian Federation. President Ardzinba addresses a rally in Sukhumi and endorses union with Russia.
May 18, 1995 The Tbilisi-based Supreme Council of Abkhazia (the pro-Georgian administration in "exile") declares that it favors a military solution to the Abkhaz stalemate if the regime in Sukhumi does not agree to the immediate return of all Georgian refugees.
May 23, 1995 Shevardnadze protests to Yeltsin over the signing of a friendship and cooperation treaty between Abkhazia and Kabardino-Balkaria (a region within the Russian Federation).
May 25, 1995 Abkhaz authorities agree that a maximum of 200 Georgian refugees per week can return to the Gali region.
Jun 13, 1995 The UNHCR protests to Abkhazia over the forms it requires returning Georgian refugees to sign, including a pledge of loyalty to the republic's separatist constitution.
Jun 16, 1995 The Tbilisi-based Supreme Council of Abkhazia (the pro-Georgian administration in "exile") accused Abkhazia's Armenian community of supporting the "Bagramyan detachment," a militia composed of Armenians which allegedly operated in collusion with Abkhaz forces in committing atrocities against ethnic Georgians.
Jun 21, 1995 An Abkhazian official announces that 40,000 unregistered Georgian refugees reside in the Gali district.
Jul 5, 1995 Speaking on Georgian radio about the country's new draft constitution, Shevardnadze says that Abkhazia will enjoy "statehood," but that certain issues such as defense, border security, and infrastructure control will be the responsibility of the central government in Tbilisi.
Jul 8, 1995 Georgian radio announces that it has reports that Abkhaz authorities intend to conscript ethnic Georgians into the Abkhaz armed forces.
Jul 19, 1995 Edouard Brunner, representative of the UN General Secretary, states that a settlement in Abkhazia must be based on the territorial integrity of Georgia as well as the granting of a special political status to Abkhazia.
Aug 3, 1995 Abkhaz authorities begin issuing identity cards to returning Georgian refugees. Abkhazia and the Russian Republic of Kardino-Balkaria sign eight inter-governmental agreements covering areas such as trade, education, and science.
Aug 9, 1995 Chechen leader Dudayev calls on Chechens in Abkhazia to return home to assist in the defense of their country.
Aug 21, 1995 4,500 Georgian returned refugees in the Gali district report to Abkhaz authorities for registration. Georgian media report that Abkhaz leader Ardzinba is purging his government amid controversy over a peace settlement with Tbilisi.
Aug 24, 1995 Georgian radio reports on the prominence of Turkish citizens of Abkhaz origin in the economy of Abkhazia.
Aug 28, 1995 Before the latest round of talks in Moscow, Abkhaz officials state that they will only agree to a Georgian-Abkhaz "confederation" and they will not negotiate on the basis of "federation."
Sep 8, 1995 The UN Security Council urges Abkhazia to be more flexible in negotiations with Georgia. Georgian media report on the founding of a new political organization, "Abkhazia is Our Home," which consists of ethnic Georgian refugees from the Abkhaz conflict.
Sep 12, 1995 A Georgian official states that 1,830 Georgian soldiers and 500 Georgian civilians went missing in the war with Abkhazia in 1992-93.
Sep 19, 1995 Shevardnadze states that extra Georgian troops will be sent to Abkhazia to ensure the safe return of Georgian refugees.
Oct 4, 1995 Abkhaz leader Ardzinba denounces Russia for arming and training Georgian soldiers for duty against his forces.
Oct 10, 1995 The Abkhaz parliament passes a law on compulsory military service.
Oct 24, 1995 Abkhazia breaks off negotiations with Georgia in response to a Russian naval blockade of the breakaway region. Citing the political sensitivity of the issue, Abkhaz leader Ardzinba refuses to commit himself to opening ethnic Georgian schools in his separatist region. The leader of the Abkhaz government in exile in Tbilisi advocates use of force to liquidate the Abkhaz secessionist government.
Oct 25, 1995 The Chairman of the "Congress of Russian Communities" (an organization of Russian speakers) of Abkhazia states that the region's 70,000 Russians are suffering under a blockade imposed by Russia.
Nov 1, 1995 Abkhazian leader Ardzinba states that his government will not allow polling to take place in the breakaway region as part of Georgian elections scheduled for November 5th. Georgia's Central Electoral Commission suspends polling in Abkhazia and parts of SOUTH OSSETIA [due to political and security conditions?] Abkhazia says that Russia has lifted naval blockade of Sukhumi. On Russian television Shevardnadze states that the Russian Federation should assist Georgia in restoring control over its breakaway regions, particularly Abkhazia.
Nov 2, 1995 Georgian and Abkhaz representatives meet in Moscow for further negotiations on ending their conflict.
Nov 3, 1995 Reports circulate that Abkhaz militants have infiltrated into the Gali region of Abkhazia in order to carry out punitive operations against returned ethnic Georgian refugees.
Nov 5, 1995 Shevardnadze wins 74 percent of the popular vote in his reelection bid for the Georgian presidency. In the first round of parliamentary polling, Shevardnadze's Citizens' Union wins 91 of 225 seats.
Nov 7, 1995 Shevardnadze threatens to use radical measures to end the Abkhaz conflict if negotiations do not lead to a settlement.
Nov 9, 1995 Shevardnadze states that he wants to change the mandate of Confederation of Independent States (CIS) peacekeepers deployed in Abkhazia so that they can perform police functions.
Nov 10, 1995 Abkhazia says it is against granting police powers to CIS peacekeepers.
Nov 20, 1995 Shevardnadze praises the state of Russo-Georgian relations. UN General Secretary Boutros-Ghali appeals to Abkhazia to make concessions in negotiations with Georgia. Georgian radio reports that delegations of policemen, students, and teachers will receive training in Turkey.
Nov 21, 1995 Abkhaz authorities deny attacking Russian peacekeepers deployed in the Gali district of Abkhazia. The European Union promises Georgia 2,640,000 dollars in economic aid.
Jan 1996 Tensions and waves of violence were reported in Gali by UN military observers (BBC)
Jan 19, 1996 Leaders of CIS imposed the blockade on Abkhazia because of what they called Arebels’ intransigence in peace talks with Tbilisi (Reuters)
Mar 1996 A Russia-Abkhazia border incident took place over Sukhumi port when Russian border guards attempted to prevent a Turkish ship from entering Sukhumi port referring to a January CIS-imposed blockade. Abkhazia leaders accused Russia of violating human rights and of attempting to stir up war in the region by enforcing a blockade against Abkhazia. The dispute was resolved after two days (BBC)
Mar 1996 There were rallies in Abkhazia against the blockade (Reuters)
Apr 17, 1996 The Georgian parliament adopted a resolution Aon measures to resolve the conflict in Abkhazia. The resolution stated that events in Abkhazia should be regarded as a political conflict in Abkhazia, not as a Georgian-Abkhaz conflict (BBC)
May 1996 Georgia marked 5 years of independence with a grand military parade (Reuters)
May 1996 CIS leaders extended the mandate for CIS peacekeepers in Abkhazia (Reuters)
Jul 1996 The UN Security Council extended UNOMIG for 6 months and admitted that efforts so far had failed to reconcile Abkhaz separatists with the Georgian government. It also demanded that the Abkhaz leadership accelerate the process of allowing Georgian refugees to return (Reuters).
Jul 6, 1996 The OSCE called for human rights tribunal in Abkhazia to investigate Agrave and massive human rights violations. (Reuters).
Aug 1, 1996 The Abkhaz army began military exercises near Sukhumi (Interfax)
Aug 7, 1996 Georgia began military manuevres near Abkhazia (Reuters)
Sep 1996 A peaceful protest by the refugees from Abkhazia in the village of Rukhi, demanded the opportunity to return to their homes (BBC).
Sep 10, 1996 The chairman of the pro-Georgian Supreme Council of Abkhazia, Tamaz, Nadareishvili, condemned the decision by the Abkhaz leaders to hold parliamentary elections in November (BBC).
Sep 26, 1996 Ardzinba reportedly sent 300 Abkhaz militants to Gali region in order to carry out a punitive action against Georgians in the district (BBC)
Sep 27, 1996 A rally attended by thousands of people and organized by the union of the displaced population of Abkhazia was held in Augdidi (western Georgia) (BBC)
Oct 2, 1996 The Georgian parliament adopted 2 resolutions On the measures to overcome the complex situation in Abkhazia and the crisis caused by the Abkhaz separatists’ decision to hold illegal elections and On the implementation of the April 17 resolution (BBC).
Oct 7, 1996 A representative of the Russian peacekeeping forces confirmed that relations between the Ochamchire and Gudauta clans became tense in connection with the coming parliamentary elections in Abkhazia (BBC).
Oct 22, 1996 UN SC called for the cancellation of Abkhaz parliamentary elections scheduled for November 23 (Facts on File World News Digest).
Nov 22, 1996 The EU called for cancellation of Abkhaz parliamentary elections, scheduled for November 23 (Facts on File World News Digest). The OSCE refused to send observers to the elections (BBC)
Nov 23, 1996 Elections to the Abkhaz parliament were held. Ardzinba called them Abkhazia’s first democratic elections to parliament (Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press).Shevardnadze condemned the results of the elections. Russia said the election were illegal (Deutsche Press-Agentur). Over 99% of refugees from Abkhazia voted in a plebiscite held in connection with the Abkhaz elections mostly condemning the elections (BBC)
Dec 1996 Talks were held between Georgia and Abkhazia in Moscow
Feb 1997 The UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNOMIG until 31 July.
Mar 17, 1997 The Abkhaz Separatist People’s Congress sought admission to the CIS (BBC)
Mar 18, 1997 The Abkhaz leader called on Georgian president to stop atrocities against Abkhazia (BBC)
Mar 31, 1997 Political parties and public organizations in Abkhazia called on the peoples of the North Caucasus and southern Russia to discuss the creation of security guarantees for Abkhazia and the Caucasus region in general (BBC)
Apr 1997 2,000 Abkhaz students protested against the decision by the CIS Moscow summit to expand the zone of operation of the peacekeeping (BBC)
Apr 1997 5,000 Georgian refugees from Abkhazia demonstrated in Tbilisi for the withdrawal of Russian troops and the right to return to their homes (Agence France Press)
May 3, 1997 Shevardnadze appealed to the UN to help stop ethnic cleansing in Abkhazia (BBC).
May 27, 1997 Shevardnadze offered increased autonomy to Abkhazia but ruled out any deal with the province as broad as that between Russia and Chechnya (Reuters)June 23, 1999
Jun 10, 1997 The Abkhaz forces were seen concentrating troops near Georgian border (BBC)
Jun 13, 1997 Georgian authorities accused Russia of resumed arms supplies to Abkhazia (BBC).
Jul 1997 The UN sponsored talks between Abkhaz and Georgian leaders, with the participation of Russia (Financial Times)
Jul 9, 1997 Clashes on the Georgian-Abkhaz border violated the cease-fire (Agence France Press)
Jul 21, 1997 Shevardnadze called for a larger UN-peacekeeping force.
Jul 31, 1997 The UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNOMIG until January 31, 1998.
Aug 14, 1997 A declaration was signed by the warring parties who pledged not to use force to resolve the dispute. However, the agreement did not mention Abkhazia’s political status and the return of about 200,000 Georgians who left Abkhazia during the war (Agence France Press).
Aug 25, 1997 Yeltsin stated that Russia would continue to mediate talks between Georgia and Abkhazia and would not let the US take over (Agence France Press).
Sep 10, 1997 Another round of Georgian-Abkhaz talks in Sukhumi took place. (BBC)
Oct 1, 1997 Ardzinba visited Tbilisi for the first time since the war for talks with Georgian authorities. Russian Foreign Minister, Primakov acted as a mediator during the talks. (Jane’s Intelligence Review)
Oct 24, 1997 Abkhaz separatists released figures on casualties during the war for the first time. Abkhaz forces were said to have lost 5,000 men (BBC)
Oct 24, 1997 The Abkhaz parliament demanded purges against collaborators with Georgian forces (BBC).
Nov 1997 Russia ended its economic blockade on Abkhazia. The decision was sharply criticized by the Georgian President (BBC)
Nov 1997 Georgian-Abkhaz talks in Geneva resulted in joint statement on settlement of the conflict a ban on the resumption of combat activities; the return of refugees and displaced people to their homes; and the settlement of economic and social issues. It was agreed to form Georgian-Abkhaz coordinating council (BBC)
Nov 7, 1997 Georgia confirmed the statement that Abkhaz separatists conducted genocide against ethnic Georgians (BBC)
Jan 26, 1998 Georgia and Abkhazia signed a protocol on joint actions to combat terrorism in Abkhazia (BBC).
Feb 9, 1998 An assassination attempt was made on Shevardnadze.(Europe Review Of World Information)
Mar 2, 1998 The interim results of an investigation into Abkhaz-Georgian war crimes were released by the Georgian Prosecutor’s office. According to the preliminary results , 7,000 ethnic Georgians have been killed since the beginning of the conflict 1992. Material damage caused by the conflict is estimated at 2.5 billion lari (1.9 billion US dollars). It was stated that the Office possessed evidence that Abkhaz separatists had close contacts with representatives of political circles in Russia and Russia’s North Caucasus republics during and after the conflict (BBC)
Mar 14, 1998 Elections for local administrations were set for Abkhazia. The Georgian parliament stated that this indicated the uselessness of the Russian peacekeeping in the Abkhazia region (TASS)
Apr 17, 1998 The Georgian parliament rejected an Abkhaz appeal for recognition of Abkhazian independence (Prime-News Agency)
May 1998 During the renewed hostilities, Shevardnadze refused to deploy Georgian troops against Abkhazia, which led to a storm of criticism from opposition groups. During the conflict, the Georgian government accused the Abkhaz leadership of carrying out a planned campaign of ethnic cleansing and also accused the Russian peacekeeping force of failing to do their job, as the attacks were carried out in the buffer zone supposedly controlled by the Russian troops. Refugees from Gali claimed that Russians did nothing to stop the fighting and the burning of villages (Europe Review of World of Information) Georgian leadership, on the other hand, accused the Russian peacekeepers of aiding and abetting the Abkhaz side (Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press)The ten-day intense fighting resulted in an estimated 239 people dead (Agence France Press)
May 1 - Jun 30, 1998 Despite the cease-fire, occasional clashes continued (BBC)
May 20, 1998 There was an outbreak of the hostilities in Gali region between Abkhaz forces and the White Legion and Forest Brothers. It was the worst fighting in 5 years (Financial Times)
May 25, 1998 A cease-fire was signed in Gagry.
Jun 24, 1998 The Russian Duma passed a resolution AOn normalizing the border affairs and customs procedures on the Abkhazian section of the Russian-Georgian border. The Georgian Parliament deemed this resolution unacceptable and regarded it as blatant interference in the country’s internal affairs. (BBC)
Jul 16, 1998 Russian Border Troops began leaving Georgia’s borders (BBC)
Jul 31, 1998 The UN Security Council extended UNOMIG’s mandate until 31 January 1998.
Jul 31, 1998 The mandate of Russian peacekeepers expired. (Current Digest of the Russian Press). Shevardnadze sought UN instead Russian peacekeepers, whereas Ardzinba asked for the extension of the mandate (The Moscow Times). Later, Shevardnadze consented to the extension.
Aug 1998 There were several clashes between Abkhazians and Georgian guerrillas (The Toronto Star)
Aug 15, 1998 Russian peacekeepers accused Georgia and Abkhazia of breaching the cease-fire agreement (BBC)
Sep 1 - Nov 30, 1998 Both sides accused each other of violating the cease-fire, although not on a major scale.
Sep 25, 1998 Georgia’s Minister of Internal Affairs Kakha Targamadze denied the very existence of the subversive and terrorist groups known as the White Legion and Forest Brothers allegedly sent from Georgian territory to the Gali district (BBC).
Sep 27, 1998 Shevardnadze stated that he would be prepared to grant Abkhazia the highest status of political autonomy within an integral Georgian federative state. (BBC).
Oct 3, 1998 Ardzinba rejected Georgia’s proposal to grant Abkhazia the highest possible status of autonomy within Georgia (BBC).
Oct 16 - 18, 1998 An Abkhaz-Georgian Conference on confidence-building was held in a resort suburb of Athens (TASS)
Nov 17, 1998 Supporters of former Georgian President Zviad Gamsakhurdia staged a revolt in Western Georgia (Current Digest of the Post-Soviet Press).
Nov 24, 1998 Russia sent more peacekeepers to the conflict zone (BBC)
Nov 25, 1998 The UN Security Council approved an increase in the number of lightly armed international and local security personnel to help protect UNOMIG in the face of deliberate violence against the Mission’s personnel. (M2 Presswire).
Dec 1998 Parties blamed each other for provoking tensions in Gali the region. (BBC).
Dec 17 - 18, 1998 The U.N. hosted talks between Abkhaz and Georgian authorities in Geneva (Xinhua New Agency). The talks were set in Geneva because the Abkhaz side refused to come to Tbilisi, where talks were originally scheduled to take place (BBC).
Jan 1999 Parties failed to reach an agreement on the terms for the return of refugees and displaced persons to the Gali district and measures for economic rehabilitation of Abkhazia.
Jan 15, 1999 The head of the collective peacekeeping forces’ tactical unit in the Georgian-Abkhaz conflict zone, stated that the situation in Gali District is worsening (M2 Presswire).
Jan 20, 1999 Twenty-six of Abkhazian political parties and organizations (refugees from Abkhazia) started to stage rallies outside foreign embassies in Georgia. Their banners read We demand the genocide of the Georgian nation to be registered, Total distrust of Russian peacekeeping forces. They demanded that the UN move from words to deeds. (BBC)
Jan 29, 1999 UN Security Council extended the mandate of UNOMIG until 31 July 1999.
Feb 4, 1999 Shevardnadze welcomed the country’s accession to the Council of Europe (BBC)
Feb 26, 1999 Astamur Tania, the Abkhaz leader’s aide, stated that those people who committed acts of violence during the war in Abkhazia would not be covered by immunity during the process of refugee return (BBC)
Apr 2, 1999 The CIS summit resolution on Abkhazia gave parties a month to coordinate their positions with regard to the return of refugees to Gali District (BBC)
Apr 2, 1999 Four Abkhaz leaders were wounded by a remote-controlled landmine in an attack on Abkhaz leaders (Agence France Press)
Apr 9, 1999 The Abkhaz People’s Assembly protested against Russia’s biased stand on the Abkhaz-Georgian conflict which they say is reflected in the CIS summit resolution of April 2nd. (BBC)
Apr 12, 1999 Shevardnadze said that events in Kosovo should be a good example for a speedy and fair settlement of conflict in Abkhzia (BBC).
May 3, 1999 Georgian President, Shevardnadze, appealed to the Abkhaz leadership to fulfill resolutions on the UN Security Council, OSCE and CIS summits, directed at the returning of refugees in Abkhazia (TASS).
May 4, 1999 Abkhaz leader. Ardzinba, criticized international efforts for the return of the refugees. He also criticized Russia for maintaining economic sanctions on Abkhaz-Russian border (BBC)
May 10, 1999 The UN Security Council demanded that parties in Abkhazia widen their commitment to the UN-led peace process by respecting the May 28, 1998 cease-fire agreement. The UN stated that it expected a settlement on the political status of Abkhazia within the State of Georgia (M2 Presswire).
Jun 7 - 9, 1999 A meeting of the Georgian and Abkhaz sides on confidence-building measures in was held in Istanbul, Turkey (Xinhua News Agency)
Oct 3, 2004 Abkhazia held presidential elections to replace Vladislav Ardzinba, but the poll is followed by a stalemate when both candidates, Sergei Bagapsh and Raul Khajimba, disputed the results. (National Post (Canada), 11/27/2004, "Abkhazia awaits new president: No official winner declared in tiny republic two months after vote")
Jan 12, 2005 Abkhazia's presidential election is held again after disputing candidates reached a compromise: Bagapsh and Khadzhinba run together as president and vice president, receiving more than 90% of the vote. (BBC Worldwide Monitoring, 01/13/2005, "President-elect sets target of bringing democracy to Abkhazia in five years")
Jul 29, 2006 Georgian outpost near defacto border with Abkhazia comes under attack with grenades. (BBC Monitoring International Reports, 07/30/2006, “Georgian Forces in Abkhazia's Kodori Gorge Come Under Fire – Agency”)
Oct 11, 2006 Abkhaz “police” detained Georgian policemen who entered Abkhazia. (BBC Monitoring International Reports, 10/11/2006, “Two Georgian Policemen Detained in Abkhazia – TV”)
Dec 7, 2006 Georgia arrests member of Abkhazia state's regional administrative leaders. (BBC Monitoring International Reports, 12/08/2006, “Abkhazia Threatens to Cut Power to Western Georgia Over Arrest of Official”)

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Information current as of July 16, 2010